What are test cases in software testing

The ultimate objective of Software QA Services is to launch a quality product in the market which is free from errors and bugs. It aims in delivering a high quality of output and reducing the time and cost, which is needed for accomplishing a project. Hence, software companies need to test the software, prior to its release in the market. Documentation is known to play a vital role to ensure an effective software testing.

Role of documentation in software testing

Documentation is known to play an integral role in test automation process. For instance, a company has delivered a product, with an unknown issue to the client. If the issue has been found at the client side, it might create a bad situation and reputation for the company. In addition to this, it involves a huge cut off from the pocket. In such cases, documentation plays a vital role in ensuring that the company does not get sued. Hence, documentation might come very handy in such cases.

There are various levels of documentation which include

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Test script

It includes a line by line description of all the data and actions, which are required for performing a test.

Test Case

It is known to describe a certain idea which needs to be tested, without mentioning the details of the different steps, which need to be taken for testing.

Test scenario

It is recognized to be a simple description of the goal of the end user, which he/she might encounter during testing.

What is a test case in software testing?

A test case refers to a document which comprises of a set of actions or conditions which are performed on a software application for verifying the functionality of the product. After the test scripts, the test cases are regarded as another prominent detailed option for documentation of the test work. Here, a certain idea which needs to be tested in described without the need to put the exact steps that needs to be used in details.

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For instance, in a test case, if you are documenting anything like Test whether coupons are applicable on the original price, it does not mention the ways for the application of the coupons. It also does not showcase that there are several ways for applying the coupon. In addition to this, it does not mention whether a software tester is using the link for application of the discount or entering the code. They provide flexibility to the tester for understanding if they are willing to execute the tests.

Advantages of writing test cases

The ultimate goal of test case is ensuring whether the features of the software are working, as per the expectation. It is useful to the tester in validating whether the product is free from flaws, errors or defects and it is working, in accordance with the expectations of the end users.

The test cases play a vital role in ensuring effective test coverage. In addition to this, it plays a vital role in bringing an improvement in the software quality. Besides this, it reduces the maintenance as well as software support costs. Also, it helps in verifying that the software is accomplishing the requirements of the end user. Also, it is useful to the tester in thinking thoroughly as well as approaching the tests from a plethora of angles.

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Test cases are known to be reusable for the future. Hence, it will be possible for anyone for referencing them as well as execution of the tests. There are a bunch of reasons owing to which test cases are really useful for software testing. They are recognized to be highly powerful artifacts which function as a good source of truth of how a specific system as well as its feature is working. Here is a list of few of the basic terminologies of test cases which are necessary for software testing:

Test case format

The crucial ingredients of test case are inclusive of description, ID, certain actionable steps, certain inputs, actual and expected results. Here are the crucial ingredients of test case format:

Test Case Name

It comprises of the title or name which is known to be self explanatory

Test case description

With the description, the software tester will gain an understanding of what they are going to test in a brief manner.

Pre-conditions

Any assumptions which are applicable to the test as well as any specific condition which have been accomplished before the test and needs to be executed needs to be listed.

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Test Case Steps

The test steps should be inclusive of the required information and data, about how to execute the tests. The tester needs to keep in mind that the steps should be brief, clear and concise and do not leave out the crucial information.

Test data

It is crucial to choose data set which provides sufficient coverage. You require choosing a data set which specifies the positive as well as negative scenarios.

Expected result

With expected result, the tester will be able to tell what they are going to experience after the execution of the test steps.

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Actual Result

It helps in specifying how the specific product behaves actually as the test cases are executed.

Comments

It includes any crucial details like the screenshots that the tester is willing to specify.

It is regarded as the typical format which should be followed by the software tester while writing the test cases. In addition to the above mentioned parameters, the testers require including extra parameters such as kind of test case, test case priority, bug ID, etc.

An effective test case design plays a vital role in bringing an improvement in the quality of software testing. It is useful in improving the effectiveness and quality of the product. The test case design techniques are classified into three primary categories which include black box techniques, white box techniques and experienced based techniques. Successful application of either of the test case design techniques bestows test cases which ensure the success of the software testing.

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